2013 Aquarius/SAC-D Science Team Meeting

November 12-14, 2013
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Images from the 2013 Aquarius/SAC-D Science Team Meeting. View originals here.

In November 2013, the eighth Aquarius/SAC-D Science Team Meeting was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The meeting was focused on the mission health and status, data analysis, scientific results, instrument performance, data processing, calibration, validation and mission science requirements assessment. The program consisted of a series of plenary session covering science overviews, the latest algorithms for Aquarius and Microwave Radiometer (MWR) sensors, and a series of excellent presentations on data validation and science results with Aquarius data, in addition to more technical splinter meetings.

Documents (60)
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A Bayesian Approach for an Aquarius Soil Moisture Product
Bruscantini, C.A., Grings, F., Barber, M., Perna, P., and Karszenbaum, H. (12-Nov-13). Several retrieval algorithms were developed to retrieve soil moisture (SM) from passive remote sensing data. The most commonly used are the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA), the Dual Channel Algorithm (DCA) and LPRM. In this paper, a novel retrieval algorithm (BRA, Bayesian Retrieval Algorithm) is developed, which uses Bayesian inference to retrieve SM and optical depth from both H & V channels.

A Numerical Study of the Amazon and Congo Plumes
Palma, E.D., Matano, R.P., and Nof, D. (12-Nov-13). In this presentation we use Aquarius data and the results of a suite of process-oriented numerical experiments to investigate the dynamical mechanisms controlling the spreading of the Amazon and Congo plumes.

A Roughness Correction Algorithm for Aquarius Using MWR
Jones, W.L., Hejazin, Y., and El-Nimri, S. (12-Nov-13). This poster presents an alternative independent approach for the AQ roughness correction, which is derived using simultaneous measurements from the CONAE Microwave Radiometer (MWR).

Advantages of Multifrequency Microwave Satellite Sensors: What do Microwave Indices Show in Argentina and Australia Ecosystems?
Barraza, V., Grings, F., Ferrazzoli, P., Huete, A., Restrepo-Coupe, N., and Karszenbaum, H. (12-Nov-13). This study analyzes time series of passive microwave data collected in Southern Hemisphere ecosystems of Australia and Argentina.

An Ancillary Rain Accumulation Data Product to Assess the Effects of Rain on the Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity
Santos-Garcia, A., Aslebagh, S., Jacob, M.M., and Jones, L. (12-Nov-13). The purpose of this paper is to describe an AQ Rain Accumulation product and to present validation results using independent WindSat rain retrievals (EDR) that occur within ±45 minutes for ~60% of the AQ L2 science data pixels.

Aquarius and SMOS Detect Effects of an Extreme Mississippi River Flooding Event in the Gulf of Mexico
Gierach, M.M., Vazquez-Cuervo, J., Lee, T., and Tsontos, V.M. (13-Nov-13). Sea surface salinity (SSS) measurements from the Aquarius/SAC-D satellite and the SMOS mission are used to document the freshening associated with the record 2011 Mississippi River flooding event in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM).

Aquarius and SMOS Salinity Errors For Assimilation Into Climate Models
Vinogradova, N.T., Ponte, R.M, Fukumori, I., and Wang, O. (13-Nov-13). Constraining dynamical systems with new information from ocean measurements, including observations of sea surface salinity (SSS) from Aquarius and SMOS, requires careful consideration of data errors that are used to determine ("weight") the importance of constraints in the optimization. Here such weights are computed as the reciprocal of the variance of data errors and are derived by comparing satellite SSS observations with ocean model output.

Aquarius Mission and Science Overview
Lagerloef, G. and the Aquarius Cal/Val/Algorithm Team (12-Nov-13). Aquarius PI Gary Lageroloef summarizes mission status, data versions (1 through 4.0), and the science mission timeline. Click here for the Calendar Year 2012 Animation embedded on Page 2 of this presentation.

Aquarius Surface Salinity and Madden-Julian Oscillation: Salinity's In Surface Layer Density and Potential Energy
Guan, B., Lee, T., Halkides, D.J., and Waliser, D.E. (13-Nov-13). Sea surface salinity (SSS) measurements from Aquarius were analyzed along with precipitation and sea surface temperatures to characterize and understand the SSS signature of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) over the 2-yr period for which Aquarius data are currently available. In this presentation, the authors conclude that (1) Aquarius detects the MJO signature in SSS; (2) Indian Ocean SSS changes are primarily forced by precipitation during wet phases; ocean dynamics plays an important role in the western Pacific; (3) salinity has important contributions to the surface density anomaly; and (4) salinity plays a dominant role in surface perturbation potential energy.

Assessing the Seasonal Variability of the Global Sea Surface Salinity from Aquarius
Song, Y.T., Yueh, S., Moon, J-H., and Qu, T. (13-Nov-13). Using two different Aquarius sea-surface-salinity (SSS) datasets, Argo in-situ measurements, and two ocean models, the authors assessed the ability of Aquarius to observe seasonal variability of global SSS. Conclusions are: (1) regional differences between Aquarius and ARGO can be explained by high E-P and R variability; and (2) Aquarius shows a clear advantage over ARGO in river discharge regions.

Assessment of the Version 6 MWR Calibration
Brown, S. (13-Nov-13). This paper presents an overview of the MWR brightness temperature calibration including: (1) MWR can be used to retrieve water vapor, cloud liquid water, wind and rain over the ocean; (2) the objective is to apply techniques used to calibrate the Jason series altimeter radiometers to MWR; and (3) since the MWR swath is formed from independent beams, it is critical to assess inter-beam calibration biases over the full dynamic range of the instrument.

Assimilation of SMOS Soil Moisture Estimates into Flow Forecasting Hydrologic Models
Goniadzki, D., Thibeault, M., Lozza, H., Quirno, U., Dadamia, M., and Bianchi, J. (12-Nov-13). This project aims at developing assimilation techniques of SAC-D soil moisture retrievals into operational hydrologic models at catchments within the Del Plata basin.

Comparison Analysis Between Aquarius Sea Surface Salinity and World Ocean Database In Situ Analyzed Sea Surface Salinity
Reagan, J., Boyer, T., and Antonov, J. (13-Nov-13). Aquarius level-3 monthly sea surface salinity (SSS) fields are compared to the World Ocean Database (WOD) derived SSS fields from September 2011 through June 2013. The datasets compare very well to one another outside of regions with large freshwater fluxes, high latitudes, and coastal regions. Annual cycles also compare very well.

Comparison Between Remotely-Sensed Sea-Surface Temperature (AVHRR) and In Situ Records in San Matías Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina) in the Context of SAC-D/Aquarius Mission
Williams, G., Zaidman, P., Glembocki, N., González, R., Esteves, J., Narvarte, M, and Gagliardini, D. (12-Nov-13). In situ records of sea surface temperature collected between 2005 and 2009 were used to compare, for the first time, the temperature estimated by the Multichannel algorithms (MCSST) of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors in San Matías Gulf (SMG), in the north of the Argentine Patagonian Continental Shelf. This study may be considered as a basis to make comparisons in future studies involving NIRST temperatures and in situ records in SMG.

CONAE Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Counts to Tb Algorithm (Version 6.0) and On-Orbit Validation
Ghazi, Z., Jones, L., and Jacob, M.M. (13-Nov-13). The MWR Calibration Team has developed an improved Microwave Radiometer (MWR) algorithm (version 6) to convert the radiometric counts to brightness temperature (Tb). This algorithm is based upon rigorous radiative transfer models with empirically derived coefficients from both pre-launch thermal vacuum radiometric calibration testing and on orbit intersatellite cross calibrations (XCAL) with the Naval Research Lab's WindSat satellite radiometer. This presentation reveals recent results of on-orbit MWR/WindSat XCAL comparisons for the newest version 6 of the MWR counts to Tb algorithm, which includes a "counts linearization" procedure to correct for a small radiometer non-linearity.

CORA Project
Zanina A., Ciancio V., Morfino P., and Di Giovan, G. (14-Nov-13). This presentation looks at (1) cosmic-solar radiation in Antarctica (preliminary results show evidence for an environmental radiation intensity of about 1.4 mSv/year); (2) the breast cancer risk in airline cabin attendants; and (3) radiation measurements at Marambio Base.

Data Validation SMOS SML2UDP Product in the Pampean Region
Rivas, R., Niclòs, R., García-Santos, V., Doña, C., Valor, E., Holzman, M., Bayala, M., Carmona, F., Ocamp, D., Thibeault, M., and Soldano, A. (12-Nov-13). A validation campaign was carried out to evaluate the SMOS-MIRAS Soil Moisture (SM) SML2UDP product (v5.51) in the Pampean Region of Argentina.

Evaluation of Sea Surface Salinity Observed by Aquarius
Abe, H. and Ebuchi, N. (13-Nov-13). The objective of this study was to validate SSS observed by Aquarius using various salinity data, including Argo observations.

Evaluation Strategies of Coarse Resolution SM Products for Monitoring Deficit/Excess Conditions in the Pampas Plains, Argentina
Grings, F., Bruscantini, C., Carballo, F., Smucler, E., Perna, P., and Karszenbaum, H. (13-Nov-13). The objectives of this study are to (1) implement evaluation strategies of available course resolution for SM products; and (2) use these evaluation procedures to evaluate soil moisture products for the Pampas Plain (AMSR-E, and Aquarius).

Exploring Synergy Between Satellite Ocean Color and Salinity Observations Near the Amazon Outflow
Vandenmark, D., Fournier, S., Reul, N., Salisbury, J., and Chapron, B. (13-Nov-13). This study focuses on optimizing the combined use of ocean color satellite data and new ocean salinity measurements to better determine near surface salinity in regions with large freshwater outflow.

Multitemporal Study and Monitoring of South Patagonian Ice Glaciers and South Weddell Sea
Raed, M.A., Gari, J.M., Lorenzo, B., Sedeño, A., Antes, M., Cuello, A., and Sánchez, Y. (12-Nov-13). Satellite data has proven to be very important for monitoring and evaluating natural resources. The objective of using the SAC-D satellite system in this study is to compare previous work with optical Landsat, SPOT digital data, and polarimetric RADARSAT 2 with the global study given by SAC-D optical, thermical and microwave digital data.

MWR in RSS L2 Algorithm
Scott, J., Hilburn, K., Meissner, T., and Wentz, F. (13-Nov-13). Summary: (1) MWR provided instantaneous measurement of rain rate (rain flagging, surface splashing, freshening); (2) for cloud water and liquid absorption there is marginal improvement over using NCEP cloud water fields; L-band liquid cloud water absorption is very small; and (3) wind speeds are not useful for Aquarius roughness corrections.

MWR Marine Surface Wind Speed: L2 Product and Validation
Tauro, C.B., Hezain, Y., Jacob, M.M., and Jones, L. (12-Nov-13). In this work we present the wind speed retrieval obtained using MWR instrument data. The retrieval model was developed jointly between CONAE and CFRSL, and is actually used to generate Wind Speed L2 product distributed by CONAE and PODAAC.

MWR Science Overview
Rabolli, R. (12-Nov-13). SAC-D Deputy PI Monica Robolli summarizes MWR Science including: Level-2 products (columnar water vapor, sea ice concentration, total atmospheric transmisivity, wind speed); inter-agency collaborations; calibration efforts; applying MWR data to Aquarius; and applications.

NASA Report
Lindstrom, E. (12-Nov-13). The author presents an overview of ESD operating missions, planned missions (2014-2023), and the Physical Oceanography Program (funding, outlook, upcoming meetings).

Near Surface Temperature and Salinity Variations and Diurnal Cycles in the Tropical Ocean
Riser, S. and Anderson, J. (14-Nov-13). In this study, the authors used data from profiling floats enhanced with an auxilliary Surface Temperature and Salinity (STS) CTD to observe the upper ocean response to rainfall.

New Aquarius Website - What's in it For You
deCharon, A., Taylor, L., Companion, C., Cope, R., and Kuring, N. (12-Nov-13). The Aquarius website has been revamped to include: new interactive features; information retrieval from or about multimedia galleries, news, mission status, events, faqs, science meetings, and people; and a new design to meet scientists' needs (e.g. science maps, educational resources for public engagement efforts, archived webinars).

NIRST Preliminary Absolute Calibration Curve - 11 Micron Band (Poster)
Kalemkarian, M.M., Colazo, M.E., and Marraco, H.G. (12-Nov-13). This poster summarizes a methodology to perform absolute calibration for NIRST on board the SAC-D/Aquarius satellite.

NIRST Preliminary Absolute Calibration Curve - 11 Micron Band (Presentation)
Kalemkarian, M.M., Colazo, M.E., and Marraco, H.G. (14-Nov-13). This presentation summarizes a methodology to perform absolute calibration for NIRST on board the SAC-D/Aquarius satellite.

NIRST: Cold Sky Calibration and Radiometric Calibration
Marraco, H. (14-Nov-13). The author shares results from cold sky and radiometric calibrations of the New InfraRed Sensor Technology (NIRST) thermal cameras onboard SAC-D and provides a brief example that compares brightness temperatures with color temperatures.

Ocean Surface Water Exchange and Upper Ocean Salinity Balance
Liu, T. and Xie, X. (13-Nov-13). This presentation addresses the ocean-atmosphere hydrologic balance, with a focus on time-series studies from regions in the Pacific Ocean based on data from Argo/OSCAR, Aquarius, SMOS, and TRMM. Studies of time-series data in the Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) indicate that advection and freshwater storage changes were out of phase. In the tropical Pacific "warm pool", evaporation minus precipitation (E-P) lagged the ocean hydrological balance. In the Kuroshio Extension, evaporation dominated the phase of water flux and advection was small. In the Pacific subtropical gyre, freshwater flux and ocean change did not balance.

Oceanographic Cruises Carried Out in the Context of SAC-D/Aquarius Mission: Preliminary Results
Williams, G., Svendsen, G., Visinitini, N., González, R., Esteves, J.L., Gagliardini, A., and Narvarte, M. (12-Nov-13). Two oceanographic cruises were carried out in San Matías Gulf, in the north of the Argentine Patagonian Continental Shelf in the context of the first surveys in the study zone under the SAC-D/Aquarius mission. In this poster, we present and compare in-situ data with temperature estimates by the NLSST-MODIS algorithm.

On-Board Calibration Efforts for MWR of SAC-D/Aquarius Mission (Poster)
Bruscantini, C.A., Grings, F., Maas, M., and Karszenbaum, H. (12-Nov-13). The Microwave Radiometer on board the SAC-D/Aquarius mission, launched in June 2011, is a Dicke radiometer operating at 23.8 GHz (H-Pol) and 36.5 GHz (H/V-Pol). MWR channels are useful to provide ancillary data for the various retrievals to be performed with Aquarius regarding ocean and land applications. In this study we report some of the calibration results obtained with two different techniques: a land cross-calibration with Windsat and the Vicarious Cold calibration.

On-Board Calibration Efforts for MWR of SAC-D/Aquarius Mission (Presentation)
Bruscantini, C.A., Grings, F., Maas, M., and Karszenbaum, H. (13-Nov-13). The Microwave Radiometer on board the SAC-D/Aquarius mission, launched in June 2011, is a Dicke radiometer operating at 23.8 GHz (H-Pol) and 36.5 GHz (H/V-Pol). MWR channels are useful to provide ancillary data for the various retrievals to be performed with Aquarius regarding ocean and land applications. In this study we report some of the calibration results obtained with two different techniques: a land cross-calibration with Windsat and the Vicarious Cold calibration.

Polución Lumínica Marina Nocturna en Grandes Ciudades Costeras a Través de Imágenes Satelitales Nocturnas
Cotlier, C.G., Pacino, C., Cornero, C., Balparda, L., Cotlier, G., and López, A.G. (14-Nov-13). Esta presentación aborda una metodología para identificar y caracterizar la noche marina contaminación lumínica a través de imágenes satelitales nocturnas en las siguientes ciudades: Buenos Aires, Atenas, Barcelona, Nápoles, Nueva York y Estambul. Estas áreas costeras han experimentado un rápido demográfico, urbano y el crecimiento del turismo. Esto provocó un aumento considerable de la luz artificial en términos de alcance e intensidad. Un resultado ha sido la alteración nociva del estado natural, causando inestabilidad, desorden, daño o molestias a los ecosistemas.

Positive Salinity Gradients at the Ocean Surface: Results from STRASSE
Asher, W., Jessup, A., and Clark, D. (14-Nov-13). Conclusions from this study include: (1) evaporation in the presence of a diurnal warm layer can produce positive near-surface salinity gradients at low wind speed; (2) vertical gradients in T and S are spatially correlated; and (3) unless relative humidity is unrealistically low, positive salinity gradients probably do not represent a significant issue for Aquarius.

Progress in Aquarius Level 2 Algorithm: From V2 to V3
Meissner, T., Wentz, F., and Hilburn, K. (12-Nov-13). This presentation discusses the three major steps in the Aquarius Level 2 salinity retrievals to get from the current V2 to the proposed V3 release, and their impact on instrument performance: (1) improved surface roughness correction; (2) empirical adjustment of correction for reflected galactic radiation; and (3) Q/C flagging. One major remaining problem is undetected RFI.

Progress in Data Collection System (DCS)
Mercado, G. (14-Nov-13). The author presents an overview of the SAC-D/Aquarius Data Collection System, identifying office/group, program/project, type of measurement, datalogger class, and DCP site locations.

Rain Rates Measured Acoustically in the Central Equatorial Pacific Using STS/PAL Drifters
Yang, J., Nystuen, J.A., Asher, W.E., and Jessup, A.T. (14-Nov-13). Five STS profiling drifters equipped with PAL passive acoustic rain gauges were deployed in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean in 2011. The 2-year long set acoustic spectra data from these floats now provide time series from which rainfall statistics in this region can be estimated. Here, initial results from the application of an improved data classification scheme to the STS/PAL data are presented.

Roughness Correction for AQ SSS Algorithm Using MWR
Jones, L. and Hejazin, Y. (12-Nov-13). This paper presents an alternative independent approach for the AQ roughness correction, which is derived using simultaneous measurements from the CONAE Microwave Radiometer (MWR).

SAC-D and the Estimation of Water Vapor Over Land Surface
Epeloa, J., Meza, A., and Bava, J.A. (12-Nov-13). This work estimates the water vapour (WV) over the ground earth using brightness temperatures at 37 Ghz and 24Ghz which are SAC-D's observables (currently calibrated to obtain WV over the sea surface).

SAC-D Science Overview
Torrusio, S. (12-Nov-13). In this presentation, SAC-D PI Sandra Torrusio summarizes SAC-D news, data, products, and education and public outreach activities for the second year of satellite operation. Click here for the animation embedded on Slide 19 of her presentation, which shows the seasonal variation of wind speed (m/s) over the open ocean for four weeks of data (01-Sep-12 to 30-Sep-12) as estimated using the MWR (Microwave Radiometer).

Salinity Fronts in the Tropical Pacific Ocean
Kao, H-Y. and Lagerloef, G. (13-Nov-13). This study reveals the detailed structures and variations of salinity fronts (SF) in the tropical Pacific using Aquarius observations, specifically at the eastern edge of western Pacific fresh pool, south boundary of intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and the western edge of eastern Pacific fresh pool.

Salinity's Role in Tropical Atlantic Instability Waves - A Unique Vantage Point from Aquarius/SAC-D
Lee, T., Lagerloef, G., McPhaden, M., Willis, J., and Gierach, M. (13-Nov-13). Tropical Atlantic instability waves (TIWs) play an important role in the dynamics of the tropical Atlantic Ocean and related climate variability. Analysis of Aquarius seas surface salinity shows that (1) tropical Atlantic TIWs remain strong in the west although the SST signature is weak; (2) the S effect on PPE is somewhat weaker than the T effect in the east, but increases dramatically towards the west where it becomes much more dominant; (3) the S effect on PPE has a direct effect (to density) and an indirect effect (due to T'S'), which is very significant; and (4) seasonality of the growth/decay of TIWs are somewhat different between east and west, probably due to the differences in processes that set up the meridional velocity shear.

Sea Surface Salinity and Barrier Layer Variability in the Equatorial Pacific
Qu, T., Song, T., and Maes, C. (13-Nov-13). This study investigates the sea surface salinity (SSS) and barrier layer variability in the equatorial Pacific using recently available Aquarius and Argo data. Conclusions are: (1) Aquarius SSS agrees reasonably well with Argo and can precisely detect the SSS front in the equatorial Pacific; (2) the SSS front nicely represents the eastern edge of the warm pool, and both of them have a strong signature of ENSO; and (3) A thick barrier layer is always present on the western side of the SSS front, moving back and forth with the ENSO cycle.

Snakes on a Ship: First Results from SPURS SSS
Schanze, J.J., Lagerloef, G., Schmitt, R.W., and Hodges, B.A. (14-Nov-13). As part of the Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS), a novel sea surface salinity sampling apparatus was deployed aboard the R/V Endeavor to sample undisturbed water outside of the ship's wake. The results indicate that (1) surface salinity enhancements are interesting, but probably not relevant to Aquarius retrievals; and (2) puddles can occur at any time of day and are likely of some relevance to Aquarius retrievals. Next steps include: (1) modeling the development and breakdown of surface T/S changes (PWP model); (2) gathering more data in puddles; and (3) estimating impacts on Aquarius Cal/Val.

Some MWR IC Product Applications
Salgado, H., Carrascal, C., Masuelli, S., and Barreira, S. (12-Nov-13). Detection of the ice that covers the marine surface in polar areas is of great interest for studies and monitoring of the climate and environment in high latitudes. Surface cover emissivity at the frequencies of 36.9 GHz and 23.5 GHz, captured by the SAC-D Micro Wave Radiometer (MWR), allows the estimation of the sea ice concentration (IC), applying algorithms adapted for this system.

The Effect of Land Contamination and Radiofrequency Interference on the Aquarius Coastal Salinity: The East China Sea
Kim, S., Lee, J., Hong, C., Pang, I., Matthaeis, P., and Yueh, S. (13-Nov-13). This paper assesses the quality of the Aquarius salinity product over the East China Sea in the presence of land and RFI (radiofrequency interference) contamination. Two models for simulating the land emission are compared and the results indicate that the monitoring of salinity by the Aquarius instrument in the marginal sea is feasible despite the two contaminants.

The North Atlantic Subtropical Surface Salinity Maximum as Observed by Aquarius
Bingham, F., Busecke, J., Gordon, A., Giulivi, C., and Li, Z. (12-Nov-13). The subtropical surface salinity maximum (SSS-max) in the North Atlantic was studied as part of the SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study) experiment in 2012-2013. This paper documents the structure and variability of the SSS-max using Aquarius data during the two-year period August 2011 - August 2013.

The Rain Effect on Aquarius Sea Surface Salinity Retrieval
Tang, W., Yueh, S., Lagerloef, G., Fore, A., and Hayashi, A. (14-Nov-13). This presentation looks at geophysical model functions with rain correction and CAP retrieval; the seasonal evolution of the equatorial Pacific fresh water pools; and the impact of rain correction on the mixed layer salt storage tendency.

The Salinity Signal of the Shelf/Deep-Ocean Exchange in the Southwestern Atlantic: Remote Observations
Guerrero R.A., Fenco H., Piola A.R., Matano R., Combes V., Strub T., Chao Y., Saraceno M., Ruiz L., Palma E. (13-Nov-13). The largest variance in sea surface salinity in the subtropical South Atlantic is observed at the western flank of the basin, off the Río de la Plata. The salinity distribution in this area is controlled by the confluence of the Malvinas and the Brazil currents as well as the export of diluted waters from the neighboring shelf. In this presentation, we show that SAC-D/Aquarius data can be used to document the surface expression of the interaction between the shelf and the deep-ocean in this region.

The Salinity Signal of the Shelf/Deep-Ocean Exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Region: Numerical Simulations
Matano, R., Combes, V., Palma, E., Guerrero, R., Fenco, H., Strub, T., Piola, A.R., Chao, Y., and Saraceno, M. (13-Nov-13). Observations and numerical simulations suggest that subantarctic and subtropical waters on the western South Atlantic continental shelf converge near 33°S. This convergence must be balanced by export of shelf waters to the deep oceans that, together with runoff from Río de la Plata (RdP) and the Patos Lagoon, create extensive regions of low salinity on the Brazil/Malvinas Confluence.

The Salinity Signal of the Shelf/Deep-Ocean Exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic: In Situ Observations
Piola, A.R., Valla, D., Guerrero, R.A., Fenco, H., Möller, O.O., Matano, R.P., Combes, V., Chao, Y., Palma, E.D., Ruiz Etcheverry, L.A., Strub, P.T., and Saraceno, M. (14-Nov-13). The freshwater discharge from the La Plata River generates a sea surface salinity anomaly that characterizes the local outflow of shelf waters into the deep ocean. Here, we discuss the kinematics and dynamics of the observed SSSa using the results of a suite of process-oriented numerical simulations.

Theoretical Basis and Examples of Global Sea Products (Level 3) for MWR
Masuelli, S., Heredia, S., and Madero, F. (12-Nov-13). In this work we present the basis to produce weekly and monthly products (L3) of the MWR's geophysical variables, based on the global product definitions for similar purposes.

Tools, Services and Support of Aquarius/SAC-D Data Archival and Distribution Through PO.DAAC
Tsontos,V., Vazquez, J., and Thompson, C. (12-Nov-13). The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Center (PO.DAAC) serves as the designated NASA repository and distribution node for all Aquarius/SAC-D data products in close collaboration with the project. Here we report on the status of Aquarius data holdings at PO.DAAC, observed patterns of usage of these data sets, and the range of data services and access tools that we provide in support of this mission.

Updates of Aquarius' CAP Ocean Surface Salinity and Wind Retrieval Algorithm
Yueh, S., Tang, W., Fore, A., and Hayashi, A. (14-Nov-13). This paper describes Aquarius' version-3.0 Combined Active-Passive (CAP) retrieval algorithm for simultaneous retrieval of surface salinity and wind. The major updates to the CAP V3.0 algorithm include the galactic reflection correction, Faraday rotation (FR) and Antenna Pattern Correction (APC) as well as the geophysical model functions (GMF) of wind, wave and rain impacts.

Upper Ocean Salinity Balance and Imprints of Salinity in Carbon Cycle
Xie, X. and Lin, T. (12-Nov-13). This poster displays the equation for upper ocean salinity balance and describes the role of salinity in carbon dioxide partial pressure.

Use of Satellite Information to Understand the Effect of Climatic Variables on the Distribution of Elephant Seals in North American and Arctic Waters
Gomez, J.J. and Cassini, M.H. (12-Nov-13). Northern elephant seals Mirounga angustirostris are among the most sexually dimorphic and polygynous species of all mammals, and they show spatial segregation between males and females. The objective of this work was to correlate female and male foraging distributions of these seals with main climatic variables at a biogeographical scale in North Pacific and Arctic waters.

Validation of Aquarius Salinity with Argo: Errors Due to Collocation and Vertical Salinity Stratification
Riser, S. and Drucker, R. (13-Nov-13). In this study, the authors validated Aquarius v2.0 level-2 sea surface salinities against Argo near-surface salinities for the period 27-Aug-11 through 31-Jul-13.

Validation of Aquarius Sea Surface Salinity Data with In Situ Measurements from the SPURS Field Experiment
Chao, Y. and Zhang, C. (14-Nov-13). In situ measurements collected from the SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study) field experiment during September 2012 - October 2013 were used in this study to validate the Aquarius retrieved sea surface salinity.